All the photos shown below were taken by dr.  Jens Rydell
På Dansk: Dansk flag
Most of the pictures lead to further explanation by clicking on them.

Panel 1 og 2      Special mudcracks look like trace fossils. But they are not at all trace fossils.   

With oscillationsripples from Gunpowder Creek Formationen, Queensland, Australien


With linguide ripples, from Fish River Group, Namibia.

No.1 og 2                Drawing                     Age: PreCambrian     time scale
Panel 2 spor 3 Wave ripples, doubleripples, Chorhat, Ss.India. 
PANEL 2 No. 3                                                                                Age: PreCambrian  time scale
PANEL 3  Spor 4-6  no.6: Ripples with loadcasts

 no.5: Erosion ripples

 no.4: Recticulate ripples
PANEL 3 Numbers 4,5 & 6  Palimpsest ripples from Chorhat, South India.  Drawing                          Age: PreCambrian                              time scale


The “dinosaur-skin” surface is the sole of  a turbidite. Guide books refer to it as flute casts, sedimentary structures that originate by a kind of erosion taking place just before the first layer of sand comes to rest from a turbid flow. In this moment, small eddies form and act, together with the sand grains, like minute glacier mills. Accordingly, each flute starts with a globular excavation, whose drawn-out tail on the downcurrent side marks the migration and eventual dissipation of the eddy. Flute structures were never observed on modern sea floors, because they become immediately buried under the sand that scoured them.

The present structures differ from typical flute casts. Instead of   resembling radishes, they have a brain-like appearance. Also unusual is their arrangement in stretches perpendicular to current direction. This kind of sedimentary structures could be called “mop casts”, because the individual depressions end in a rather sharp front on the down current side and thereby resemble the threads of a household mop. The difference is important for reconstructing the ancient current direction: the steep sides point up-current in flute casts, but down-current in a mop cast, as shown by crossbedding in the overlying sand.

 "Dinosaur Skin"
No. 6a COXSACKIE                               The Normanskill Formation, New York State                          Age: Ordovicium           time scale

Sporfossil nr.7  Stromatolitter Stromatolites from Saratoga Springs, New York.  

As stated before, most Precambrian soft bottoms (sands as well as muds) were sealed by microbial mats. Normally, their former presence can be derived only from the abnormal behavior of the sediment under the influence of physical forces. At the same time (since about 3 billion years ago), other microscopic communities (involving e.g. cyanobacteria) not only bound sediment grains into flexible mats, but cemented them actively by precipitating crystalline carbonate in the pore space. This process led to the first reefs -- individual mounds and pinnacles of biogenic origin rising above an otherwise flat sea bottom. Such "stromatolites" developed characteristic growth forms and the rhythmic banding (seen in cross sections), to which the name refers. Nonetheless they are not individuals, but communities of microbes. True, sizes and growth forms are distinctive in each particular bed, but they were controlled by the conditions in their local environment, rather than by a genetic program. Therefore, stromatolite morphologies are of limited use for stratigraphic correlation except on a local scale.

No. 7                                                                            Age:  M.Cambrian         time scale

Panel 8 No.8 Another fake "trace fossil"

It looks like fossilized medusae - but it's not.
PANEL 5 No.8  Sand volcanoes        Drawing                                           Age: PreCambrian  time scale

Panel 9 Growth structures where Ediacara creatures were attached?
"Trace fossil" no.9  Problematic fossil  from Ediacara , S.Australien      Age: Ediacara               time scale

Sporfossiler nr 10 og 11  
No.11  Charnodiscus

No.10  Dickinsonia og Phyllozoon


Nr. 10 & 11    Trace fossils from Ediacara         time scale
PANEL 6     The Strange World

Spor 12-13 Ediacaran vendobionts

No. 13  from Flinders Ranges, S.Australien

No.12  from Mistaken Point, Vendian, Newfoundland

PANEL 7    "Ediacaran Pompei"   drawing            Age:  Ediacara               time scale

spor 14 Vendobioter
PANEL 8   Ediacaran fossils, Vendobiots from Namibia

PANEL 8  Vendobiotes
 no.14  drawing   Age: Ediacara     time scale

PANEL 9   Biomat eaters, Flinders Ridge, Australia  Age: Ediacara

Sporfossil nr.16
  no.16, Oldhamia fra Maine USA.             

Lokality: Maine


PANEL 10   Fire works
 no.16    drawing   Age: Lower Cambrian time scale

Sporfossil nr.17 Psammocoralia Trace fossil no. 17, Spatangopsis stellatus from N.Skotland               

PANEL 11   "Sand Stars"
No. 17                      Age: Early Cambrian          time scale

Spor 18-19 Trilobitspor
19 Dimorphichnus obliquus from Pakistan.  
Age: Lower Cambrian

Trace fossil no.18 Cruziana lata from Alice Springs, Australien     
Age: Late Cambrian

PANEL 12  Trilobite traces from Cambrian
No. 18, 19                      Age:  Cambrian          time scale

Spor 20 Trilobit pirouette   Trilobite traces

PANEL 13  "Trilobite pirouettes" Trace fossil no. 20 Cruziana semiplicata           Age: Late Cambrian      time scale

PANEL 14          "Trilobite circus in Penha Garcia", Portugal     Age: Early Ordovicium
Trace fossil no. 20 c-f Cruziana rugosa

Spor 21-22 Gigantiske bløddyrspor    Gigantic slug tracks

No.22: Radulichnus from Saudi Arabia.  Age: Cambrian

No.21 Climactichnites from Potsdam Sst, USA    Age: Upper Cambrian

time scale
PANEL 15  No. 21 og 22

Spor 23 "Lasso Trail"  no.23 Psammichnites gigas, S.Spanien     

 no.23                          drawing   Age: Early Cambrian        time scale

Spor nr.24 Arthrophycus alleghanniensis Arthophycus alleghanniensis from the Akakus Mountains in southern Libya.


PANEL 17  "Worm burrow jungle"  Trace fossil no. 24    drawing                        Age: Silurian    time scale

PANEL 18      Phycodes parallelum, from Utah Shred bed       Age: Middle Ordovicium

spor 25 Thallasinoides Thalassinoides fra Umbria i Italien           

Trace fossil no.25  drawing        Age: Late Triassic    time scale

Spor 26 Tatzelwurm Sterosoma sp from Umbrien, Italien  

PANEL 20   "Jurassic Tatzelwurm" Trace fossil no.26 Thallasionides         Age: Early Jurassic          time scale

spor28 Häntzschelinia ottoi
PANEL 22    "Japansk blomsterseng", Trace fossil no.28 Häntzschelinia ottoi, Japan   Age: Middle Miocene   time scale

spor29 Different graphoglyptid burrow systems, from Guetaria in Northern Spain
PANEL 24   "Drawing in the deep sea   Trace fossil no 29                                 Age: Eocene          time scale


Spor30,  Lockeia fra Alberta Canada                     Age: Late Cretaceous
Spor 31  Unionid shells, Alberta, Canada      Age: Late cretaceous
PANEL 25   "Life and death in the Dinosaur Park I " PANEL 26  "Life and death in the Dinosaur Park II "

"Cambrian beach party"
First step on land nr.31a Protichnites, From Ontario, Canada   Age: Late Cambrian
PANEL 31A     "First step on land"  

spor27 Zoophycus
Sporfossil no. 27  Zoophycos scoparius from Southern France    

PANEL 27    "Witch Brooms" Trace fossil no. 27  Zoophycos      Age: Middle Jurassic         time scale

PANEL 28 Sporfossil no. 31b Protichnites fra Wisconsin, USA     Age: Late Cambrian
Cambrian Beach party
No 31c
Protichnites fra Wisconsin, USA      Age: Late Cambrian
PANEL 29 Protichnites            Age: Late Cambrian

PANEL 30 Sporfossil no. 31d Climactichnites fra Wisconsin, USA  Age: Late Cambrian

No. 32a  Ichnoterium cottae,  fra Tambach i Tyskland.
In # 32a part of the vertebrate track (Ichnotherium cottae) are incomplete. In some footprints the heel impressions are missing, as if the animal had been tiptoeing. In other cases the whole trackway disappears. This incompleteness can not be due to secondary erosion, because the rest of the track is perfectly preserved -- including impressions of the wrinkled skin. Rather we are deal with undertracks impressed through a covering layer of sand. This means that the mud cracks crossing them also formed within the sediment! The same is probably true for the scratches around a shallow pit, where the same pelycosaur presumably dug for food.

No.32b Tambia, from Tambach in Germany

The lower slab (# 32b, from same locality) shows not only a trackway, but also beautiful raindrop impressions. These, however, are seen only in the upper right corner, where the sand cover had been thin enough for the impacts to press through.

Thus the exposed bedding plane records a whole sequence of events -- from near-surface raindrop impressions, to the vertebrate tracks pressed through 1-2cm of sand, the insect burrows made after additional sand deposition and finally the desiccation that resulted in the internal mud cracks.
PANEL 31                                       Age: Lower Permian


PANEL 32   "Wrong sided hands"
When the these foot prints were found in the Lower Triassic "Buntsandstein" of Thuringia, Germany in the early 19th century, the immediate idea was that they were made by pre-diluvial man: the larger impressions indeed resemble our own hand. The scientific name Chirotherium ("hand animal") refers to this similarity. Soon, however, it was recognized that the big "hand" was the hindlimb, accompanied by the impression of a much smaller and less hand-like front limb. The alternative attribution to a bear-like animal did not work either, because the first mammals appeared much late (in the Triassic) and only with much smaller body sizes. Therefore the great British geologist Charles LYELL referred Chirotherium to stegocephalian amphibians -- the only adequately sized tetrapods of which bones had been found in the Buntsandstein.
PANEL 32   "Wrong sided hands Sporfossil nr.33 Chirotherium from Hildburghausen, Germany                                       Age: Early Triassic

Sporfossil nr. 33a Undichna fra Crailsheim i Tyskland                           Alder:  Øvre Trias


PANEL 34 "Signatures of amountain builder"

Spor34 "Sporfossil" nr.34 Westerstetten patterns in Jurassic limestone, South Germany
PANEL 35   "Natures finger painting"                                      Age: Jurassic

PANEL 36  "Petras bølger", Liesegang ringe i Kambro-Ordovisiske sandsten i Jordan

PANEL 37 Modern Art

Panel 35  Elephant carved in a large stone some time during the Stone Age, from the Akakus Mountains in Southern Libya
PANEL 36        Stone Age art                                    Alder: cirka 10 000 år

PANEL 38    "Mindre modern art" 

Panel 37 Animal tracks? or Petroglyphs?

The are probably man made petroglyphs. Maybe to teach young men in hunting about the tracks from antilopes. Or maybe it is made as pure art. Possibly inspired by the natural trace (fossils) present in the same area (South Libya).
PANEL 37 "Schoolbook for hikers or hunters", Akakusmountains, S.Libya                     Age cirka 10 000 år

PANEL 39no.31

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